Gems rather complicated structure, with the exception of diamond. It is based on only one chemical element – carbon. But 9/10 of all mined diamonds are for industrial needs, and only 1/10 comes to jewelers, and then to consumers.
The famous diamond “Shah” was given to Russia by Persia after the sad incident. During the attack of religious fanatics on the Russian diplomatic mission in Tehran were killed all its members, including the famous Russian writer and diplomat Alexander Griboyedov. To make amends for this accident, from Persia to St. Petersburg, a delegation arrived with luxurious gifts. The crowning gifts were “Shah”. Nicholas First went to meet the Persians, and the Tehran tragedy was forgotten. All of them, except the families of the diplomats…
To produce just one carat of emerald in Colombia dug about 20 tons of soil. Emerald can be not only green but also red. This kind of gemstone is called bixbite. Its field so far found in only one place on earth – in Utah. Among the emeralds almost impossible to find a stone without flaws: almost all of them are cracked and contain inclusions. But much more important and more valuable color and saturation.
Different peoples of the world who lived in different eras, ambiguous, but with the same respectful attitude to emerald. The emerald has long been considered a stone, protecting their master from damage. The ancient Greeks invented for him a poetic name – the stone of radiance. Traditionally, the Indians gave the emerald to the newlyweds as a wedding gift, because they believed that it keeps the feelings of the spouses “fresh”. Russian ancestors believed that to show these properties in full measure it can only in a gold frame. They considered him one of the symbols of wisdom.
Not every monarch could be proud that it is named after a precious stone. When Nicholas First born son, the Tsarevich Alexander (the future Emperor Alexander II), — new open mineral was named after the boy – Alexandrite.
The weight of gemstones is measured in carats. These units from the seeds of the carob tree, is perfectly similar to each other in size and shape. The weight of such seed – 0.2 grams – and was named carat. This unit existed in the ancient world and survived to our days.
Sapphire is usually represented by the stone of an intense blue color. In fact, in nature there is a purple, pink, orange, yellow and even green sapphire, which has the common name “fantasy”. The only color not available this stone is red. Sapphires are very appreciated Boris Godunov. He thought they were magic, possess many useful properties.
Ruby – a precious stone of a deep scarlet color occurring almost everywhere. The only continent where his deposits were never discovered, Antarctica. ))) Traditionally these stones are supplied for export from Thailand, Tajikistan, Sri Lanka, Kenya and Tanzania. The highest quality and, accordingly, expensive rubies are considered to be from Asia. Ruby not by chance is considered a Royal stone. He was revered by many historical figures. Your collection of rubies was Cleopatra, cardinal Richelieu, Mary Stuart and Marie de Medici.
And our contemporary British Queen Elizabeth II in 1973 he ordered the court jewelers luxury ruby tiara. The decoration was made from stones given to her by the Burmese as a wedding gift.
The largest known Topaz is called Topaz of Eldorado. The weight of the stone, stored in Brazil, is 31 thousand carats. Decoration with Topaz, it is better not to wear to the beach, and generally less likely to seem them in the sun. It dims from ultraviolet light.