The emerald stone is mentioned in the Bible among other stones of the breastplate of the Jewish high priests. Pliny calls the “Smaragd” (the Greek word for emerald), apparently, a few green stones that, according to the beliefs of his epoch, and all were extremely helpful for vision. He says: “… emerald is the only stone, pleasing to the eye without fatigue; when my eyes tired of staring at other objects, it returns the severity of the contemplation of the emerald.”
Emerald ascribed numerous magical and medicinal properties. So, Epiphanius indicates that the emerald helps to predict the future, and this is confirmed by almost all later authors who have written about the properties of stones. In addition, all the authors believed that the stone repels the snakes and treat their bites, and this property was transformed into the belief that one kind of emerald deadly to poisonous snakes as they looked at emerald, going blind. The great Biruni of Khwarazm, taking nothing on faith, has experienced this property.
He showed snake the emeralds, put the stones in the basket, where she was detained, put on her emerald necklace and brandished before her eyes with a thread strung with her emeralds, and then said: “Nothing’s up with her eyes not, except that the sight became sharper”. However, the belief was persistent, and in ancient Armenian manuscripts, noted: “they Say that the nature of emerald is cold and dry; others say that if you hold an emerald before a snake, her eyes would burst; good wearing it: the eyes won’t hurt, your vision will improve, to live the owner will be long, night-blindness will not get sick.
They say emerald is the most powerful antidote, if the person who took the poison, to give two carat emerald with camel’s milk, he, with God’s help, will be saved: the poison will come out with sweat. If it bites you the Scorpion or snake, it is advised to mix emerald with rose water and apply to the wound. I wearing emerald will not be of sadness and worries.” And later, in the XIII century, Ahmed Tifashi claimed that the snake will go blind after seeing the emerald “is verified by experience.”
However, he was “interested person” because he dealt with stones. A contemporary of Biruni, Avicenna believed that the emerald cures eye diseases, bloody diarrhea and black cough. Marbot reports that the most transparent emeralds are make their owners famous. Emerald is useful for those who want to discover the secrets and learn the future. He adds a wealth of worthwhile, gives him a strong case at trial, as it holds great power of eloquence. Wearable as a pendant on the neck, the stone heals the face and epilepsy.
Gives rest to the eyes due to its gentle green color. It prevents storms and drives away evil thoughts. In Lapidario Alfonso X States that the emerald is the cure for all deadly poisons from wounds and bites of poisonous creatures. Poisoned people, taking the powder of emerald, will be healed. However, under unfavorable position of the stars at the wearer of emerald: “the feelings grow sad, and he will not understand anything until we have removed the emerald from his jewelry”.
Albert Balyntsi wrote that if you cut the emerald of the bird’s beak, then he will heal the fever and leprosy. During these times, the emerald as “discoverer of truth” was considered very useful in love Affairs, because it revealed the truth of the treachery or oaths of love. However, he is often called the enemy of sensual love, and the same albert talked about the Hungarian king Bela IV (1206-1270), which was a ring with an emerald of great value. This emerald broke into three pieces when the king embraced his wife, without removing the ring.
In Czech the Lapidarium of the fourteenth century, the emerald is found in the nests of griffins (winged lions). In the hands of a dishonest person stone loses its Shine. Gerolamo Cardano, an astrologer, mathematician, engineer and physician of the sixteenth century claimed that the emerald sharpens the wits and quickens the intelligence, and makes people more honest, for “dishonesty is nothing like ignorance, stupidity, and vicious temper”.
Stone, in his opinion, makes a person more economical, and so rich, though more skeptical. At the same time in Central Asia believed that: “who wears an emerald, no dreams, troubling the spirit. Emerald strengthens the heart, removes the bitterness, rescues from epilepsy and evil spirits. If emerald mounted in gold and used as a seal, its owner immune from the pestilence, from the spell of love and insomnia”.